Music can reduce the anxiety and pain of invasive surgery, according to an analysis of all relevant randomized controlled trials published since 1980.
Ninety-two trials with a total of 7385 patients were included in British Journal of Surgery analysis. Music interventions significantly decreased anxiety and pain compared with controls, equivalent to a decrease of 21 mm for anxiety and 10 mm for pain on a 100-mm visual analogue scale.
There was no significant association between the effect of music interventions and age, sex, choice and timing of music, and type of anaesthesia.
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